The Problems of Historical Poetics. 2017. Vol. 15. No. 4. 173 p.
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|Vinogradov I. A.||
PROVOCATION OF THE FANTASY: MYSTIFICATED QUOTATION OF D. S. MEREZHKOVSKY AS A LITERARY FACT IN N. V. GOGOL STUDIES
Doctor in Philology, Senior Researcher,Abstract:
The Department of Russian Classical Literature,
A. M. Gorky Institute of World Literature of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
(Moscow, Russian Federation)
At the beginning of the 20th century, half a century after the death of Gogol, in the periodicals of that time along with the memoirs of his last days of life appeared a story about how the writer’s spiritual father, archpriest Matthew Konstantinovsky, a famous preacher from Rzhev, supposedly asked the writer to “disavow Pushkin”. This theme immediately became one of the most urgent ones in the eyes of the writers of different directions. Thus, Gogol’s legacy once again turned out to be the center of ideological disputes and conflicts. Inspite of a rather stormy discussion of this issue at that time, the question of origins of the “spectacular” evidence of the irrepressible, “unreasonable” jealousy of the Rzhev pastor was left untouched. Accepted for granted, this testimony became later paradigmatic while covering the last days of Gogol’s life, inevitably reproaching Fr. Matthew (or, on the contrary, making an attempt to “justify” the priest). Meanwhile, a detailed study of this issue offered in this article shows that the author of the notorious phrase was not archpriest Matthew Konstantinovsky, but one of the key representatives of a new pre-revolutionary era D. S. Merezhkovsky. The mystified “evidence”, taken in 1902 by Merezhkovsky as a basis of his famous writing on Gogol, was initially promulgated by him at the first meeting of the Religious and Philosophical Assemblies, inaugurated in St. Petersburg on November 29, 1901.
Keywords: N. V. Gogol, A. S. Pushkin, Matthew Konstantinovsky, D. S. Merezhkovsky, V. V. Rozanov, quote, hoax, fiction, rhetorical effect, legend, criticism of sources, attribution, social ideology, spiritual heritage
Views: 241; Downloads: 47;
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|Sytina Y. N.||
THE GOSPEL TEXT AND SUBTEXT IN THE STORIES “THE DAUGHTER OF A HIGH OFFICIAL” BY IVAN PANAYEV AND “THE PAINTER” BY VLADIMIR ODOYEVSKY
Ph.D. in Philology, Associate Professor of the Department of Russian classical literature,Abstract:
Moscow Region State University,
(Moscow, Russian Federation)
Ivan Panayev’s story “The Daughter of a High Official” and Vladimir Odoyevsky’s story “The Painter” were published in the journal “Otechestvennye Zapiski” (“Domestic notes”) in 1839. The plots of these stories are similar to each other. The events take place in St. Petersburg of that time. The key problems put forward in them are creative work, expression of the ideal, discovering and maintenance of the artistic identity despite the misunderstanding and pressure of the “crowd”. However, inspite of being formally similar these stories demonstrate that behind the external religiosity there is philosophy and worldview that are not absolutely Christian by character, and the text of an apparent romantic character conceals Orthodox values. Thus, if at first sight Odoyevsky’s story resembles German Romanticism, the study of the poetics of “The Painter” discloses the deep worldview and spiritual ties of the writer with Orthodoxy. In the story of Panayev a Christian tradition gets exposed. The direct introduction of the gospel text into the narration makes it possible to ennoble “positive” characters and to give solemnity to the narration. However, Fichtian Philosophy and the cult of a creative personality is affrimed in Panayev’s story. It brings him to the philosophy of Romanticism and alienated from Christianity. The conflict between the artist and the “crowd” in Panayev’s story takes a social subtext, thus, foretelling the development of the “natural school”.
Keywords: gospel text and subtext, poetics, romanticism, tradition, transformation, I. I. Panayev, V. F. Odoyevsky
Views: 248; Downloads: 41;
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|Starygina N. N.||
DONARY: FROM A PERMANENT CHRISTMAS MOTIF TO A CROSS-CUTTING MOTIF IN YULETIDE STORIES OF N. S. LESKOV
Doctor of Philology, Professor of the Department of social sciences and technology,Abstract:
Volga State Technological University,
(Yoshkar-Ola, Russian Federation)
The subject of research is the motif of donary, the object of study is a series of “Christmas stories” by N. S. Leskov. The research paper envisages the content, functions, manifestations of the motif of giving gifts in the gospel story of the Nativity, in Christmas cultural traditions. Versions of the motif of donary, its types, gifts and donations are systematized in the yuletide stories of Leskov. The motif of gift-giving accomplishes various artistic functions such as: formation of the subject, characters, typologization. The motif of donation is cross-cutting in the whole of the series of yuletide stories and plays a cycle formative role. A gift-giving motif is seen by Leskov as an important way of depicting social and cultural domains including functional culture and daily life of the characters. The key function of the gift-giving motif is formation of the Christmas contextual content in Leskov’s yuletide stories characterized, as it is known, by the representation of common (worldly) situations, absence and/or revealing of mysticism, often by their humorous connotation etc. The gift-giving motif becomes a means of presenting Christmas semantics that enriches Leskov’s texts with Christian motifs, images, symbols and concepts.
Keywords: N. S. Leskov, the motif of donary, types of gift-giving, gift, social and cultural domain, Christmas, Yuletide, cycle of stories, yuletide story
Views: 346; Downloads: 28;
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"LIE" AND "TRUTH" IN THE TERMS OF EVANGELICAL VERITY (F. DOSTOEVSKY’S NOVEL “THE DEMONS”)
The University of Urbino Carlo Bo,
The concept of lie corresponds in Dostoevsky’s novel “The Demons” with the concepts of truth/Verity, indicating a hidden connection of the novel with the gospel texts, in isolation from which it is impossible to perceive the deep meaning of this work. In the novel the word “Verity” is often used in the context of the concepts “faith” and “people”. These concepts reside in the conception of soil that forms the basis of the theory of pochvennichestvo, and are related to the Messianic idea of Russia. Based on false notions actions and words of the characters-“demons” (Stavrogin, Pyotr Verkhovensky and the other members of the revolutionary cells) overlap and interact with actions and words of Shatov, a “new man” who accepted the Verity of Christ. Dostoevsky constantly puts the questions before the reader: where is truth and what is it? what is Verity? The article comes to the conclusion that “lie” and “truth” as such in the novel “Demons” are not antagonistic, but serve to make visible the evangelical Verity in the novel.
Keywords: F. Dostoevsky, the gospel text, truth, Verity, lie, “The Demons”, pochvennichestvo, Jesus Christ, The Life of St. Anthony
Views: 230; Downloads: 30;
|59 - 75|
|Zavelskaya D. A.||
THE GOSPEL MOTIF IN THE WORKS OF N. S. GUMILYOV
Ph.D. in Philology, Associate Professor of religious studies,Abstract:
St. John the Theologian’s Moscow Orthodox Institute,
(Moscow, Russian Federation)
Historically, the Gospel motif (a message about salvation of the mankind) appeared in various genres of Christian literature. Today in literary studies it becomes urgent to study not only the textual parallels with the Gospel, but also the world model embodied in a literary text. The subject of this study is the Gospel motif and artistc tools of its embodying into the corpus of the N. S. Gumilyov’s works. While analyzing Gumilyov’s works (poem “Prodigal Son”, poetic drama “Gondla”, poem “The Second Сanzone” and “The townlet”) the debate between the representatives of Russian modernism is taken into account. Having mastered the school of symbolist poetics, Gumilyov in his works implements another conception of earthly existence, not opposed to spirituality. Gumilyov’s “Poetic sermon” of the enlightened existence is analyzed in the context of his polemic with the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. The article shows that the Gospel motif has become one of the key motifs of Gumilyov’s works since 1911. It affects the choice of stories and images, brings together the writings of different genres, reveals in their aesthetics the Christian image of the world, values and ethics. In the poetics of the works one can see a conceptual meaning of a newfound Eden as an element of the worldview.
Keywords: N. S. Gumilyov, “Gondla”, “Prodigal son”, the Gospel, a poetic sermon, genre, image, plot, motif, Christian worldview
Views: 181; Downloads: 28;
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|Mikhalenko N. V.||
RELIGIOUS MOTIFS IN “SEGODNYASHNIY LUBOK” AND “OKNA ROSTA AND GLAVPOLITPROSVET” OF V. V. MAYAKOVSKY
Ph.D. in Philology, Senior Researcher of the Department of Modern Russian Literature and Russian Literature Abroad,Abstract:
A. M. Gorky Institute of World Literature of the Russian Academy of Sсiences,
(Moscow, Russian Federation)
The propaganda posters in “Segodnyashniy lubok” and “Windows of satire of the Russian Telegraph Agency (Okna ROSTA) and Glavpolitprosvet” series are similar both in visual and verbal sense. Many artistic principles, first invented for the World War I posters by V. V. Mayakovsky, K. S. Malevich, D. D. Burlyuk, V. N. Chekrygin, I. I. Mashkov, and A. V. Lentulov were developed further in the posters of the Civil War and early Soviet Republic period (1919 to 1922) by V. V. Mayakovsky, I. A. Malyutin, A. M. Lavinsky, A. S. Levin, O. M. Brik, and others. One of the features characteristic for both was the use of symbols derived from the Bible and Russian icons. And while its presence was moderate in the war-time posters (showing the contrast between the enemy and the Soviet heroes by means of color and dynamics, usage of the three-color set characteristic for Russian icons, some more elements of an icon), it is much more pronounced in “Windows of satire of the Russian Telegraph Agency (Okna ROSTA) and Glavpolitprosvet”. They are abundant with quotes from the Bible (e.g. “light of truth”, “sun of truth”), follow the solemn style of the Psalms, and borrow the color and composition from the icons extensively. By these means Mayakovsky stressed the importance of the workers’ and peasants’ cause and raised the mundane work of rebuilding the post-war economy to the level of the quest for the Promised Land.
Keywords: “Segodnyashniy lubok”, “Windows of satire of the Russian Telegraph Agency (Okna ROSTA) and Glavpolitprosvet”, works of V. V. Mayakovsky, religious motifs in posters of V. V. Mayakovsky
Views: 200; Downloads: 23;
|91 - 106|
|Zhirkova M. A.||
THE EASTER THEME IN THE POETRY OF SASHA CHORNY
Ph.D. in Philology, Associate Professor of the Department of Literature and Russian Language,Abstract:
Leningrad State University named after A. S. Pushkin,
(Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation)
This article analyses the peculiarities of evolution of the Easter theme in the poems of Sasha Chorny. In his early period of the creative work (1904–1918) the poetry take a satirical form: the poet points out the loss of the sacred significance of the celebration of Easter (the poem “Easter Сhimes”, “Holiday” (“General of Vodka...”), “Prazdnik” (“Bright Hyacinths, Hyacinths Spicy...”), “Legend”). During the period of emigration (1920–1932) of Sasha Chorny focuses on the prose, the genre of the Easter story appears. The Easter theme continues to develop in the poetry, whose keynote implicates joy and sadness (“Easter in Gatchina”, “To Little Friend”). The sadness is caused by homesickness. Recollections about the past and children, his little friends, help the author and his lyrical heroes overcome the pain of separation. The holiday brings a serene joy, comfort and spiritual transformation, hope for a miracle, the most important of which is return of the Motherland.
Keywords: Sasha Chorny, Easter theme, satire, irony, image, lyrical character, recollection, Russian literature abroad
Views: 185; Downloads: 27;
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|Yufereva Y. A.||
EVANGELICAL VIRTUES IN THE MATERIALISTIC SOCIETY (BASED ON OLEG VOLKOV’S NOVEL “SINKING INTO DARKNESS”)
the Department of Russian and Foreign Literature and Teaching Methodology,
Vyatka State University,
(Kirov, Russian Federation)
The significance of this research paper derives from the little coverage of the poetics of Volkov’s prison camp prose. The article deals with the analysis of the role of the evangelical truth in forming of the moral image of a Soviet citizen and the ideology of the socialist system in Oleg Volkov’s autobiographic novel “Sinking into Darkness” (1987). The research paper examines the peculiarities of transformation of human’s spiritual state under conditions of the totalitarian system and camp confinement. The images of righteous men, bearers of Christian virtues, their place and function in the society of that time are analyzed. It has also been ascertained that the evangelical truths are represented by Volkov as the most important base of any political and social system, as a measure of human spirituality and a reason for country’s spiritual renovation, the crucial role in which belongs to the community of believers. The author reveals transformation of the personality through finding of belief under the conditions of unfreedom and prison camp system. He indicates the facts of evolution of the moral of opportunists and consumers. The writer creates the novel's plot as the Way of the Cross leading to spiritual revival of Russia.
Keywords: Oleg Volkov, “Sinking into Darkness”, prison camp prose, moral laws, evangelical truth, righteous men
Views: 207; Downloads: 25;
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|Prashсheruk N. V.||
FUNCTIONS AND SYMBOLISM OF DREAMS IN E. DOMBROVSKAYA’S STORY “THE SPRING OF SOUL. LIFE SCENES OF ANN, THE SERVANT OF LORD”
Doctor of Philology, Professor of the Department classical literature and folklore,Abstract:
Ural Federal University,
(Yekaterinburg, Russian Federation)
The article offers the analysis of functions and symbols in one of the writings of modern spiritual prose, the story “The spring of soul. Life scenes of Ann, the servant of Lord” by E. Dombrovskaya. Based upon the Orthodox traditions the author gradually follows a criterium that separates spiritual and clerical aspects of a Christian’s life, reveals the experience of step-by-step “heart purification”. The dreams interpreted by the author within the patristic learning play a role of a descriptive and symbolic analog of the character’s spiritual experience. The dreams are revelation on the implication of bygones. These dreams are systematized, unified by a cross-cutting topic of the orthodox Christian’s way of life and are meaningfully and structurally included in Ann’s ascetic experience, her stepwise way of attainment of humility and “spiritual gifts”. The author avoids “deviations” towards the aspects of human soulfulness. The dreams partly show character’s psychological wellbeing. They become the signs of God’s will, related to destinies of Orthodoxy in Russia. All the dreams are filled with Christian symbols such as the cross, Jacob’s ladder, communion cup and the cup of affliction, church, icons, icon frameworks, images of the Saviour and Holy Virgin, Saint Sergius of Radonezh and Saint Prince Vladimir. The key meaning belongs to theme images of cross, heart and spilled blood. They are seen as the principal reference points on a Christian’s way and as a guarantee, an antidote against “pharisaical mind”. Dreams as the harbringers of the “unseen world” are closely connected with an epiphanical principle in depicting.
Keywords: spiritual prose, patristic tradition, orthodox ascetics, spiritual way, dreams, visions, Christian symbols, epiphany
Views: 248; Downloads: 53;
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|Zakutnyaya O. V.||
THE PROBLEM OF THE GENRE OF “THE TRUE STORY OF OLD MAN FROST” BY A. ZHVALEVSKY AND E. PASTERNAK
Ph.D. in Philology, the head of the press service,Abstract:
Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
(Moscow, Russian Federation)
“The True Story of Old Man Frost” is basically an attempt to combine a popular description of the history of the country for children and teenagers with artistic narrative; the basis for the latter are the elements of the so-called prose calendar: Christmas and yuletide stories. Using the external attributes of such prose (e. g., the action coincides with a certain time of the year) and adopting its values (the priority of home and family), the authors create internally consistent “myth” of the main new year’s character who becomes a connecting link between generations and a sign of the harmony in society. At the same time, one can notice a certain evolution in the interpretation of the main elements of the calendar prose. The main event at the beginning of the story is the miracle of transformation of the hero, an ordinary person, into the Father Frost, a magician, who gives presents and makes desires come true. However, the motif of helping the poor and disadvantaged, common for the Christmas stories of the 19th and early 20th centuries, is hardly used in “The True Story...”. That allows suggesting the evolution of the content of this kind of prose. As a result, “The True Story of...” can be attributed to the genre of a Christmas fairy tale that combines elements of flash calendar fiction and of a great novel.
Keywords: genre, fairy tale, story, calendar prose, Christmas story, yuletide story, New Year story
Views: 242; Downloads: 34;
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